The methods for the treatment of human subfertility are based on the effort to bypass the obstacles that nature or the conditions of life created. Depending on the cause of subfertility, the treatment may be minimally, slightly or quite invasive.
Ovarian stimulation – Ovulation induction
Ovarian stimulation is a treatment method for the couples challenged by ovulation disorders or unexplained infertility. The aim of the treatment is to enhance follicular development in order to mature more than one follicles (eggs) in one cycle and increase thereby the chances of conception.
The stimulation is achieved by the administration of clomiphene or gonadotropin hormones. The women start medication at the beginning of the menstrual cycle. The ovarian stimulation is closely monitored by frequent ultrasound examinations and blood tests. When the ovarian follicles have reached the desirable size and are ready to ovulate, the doctor may advice the couple to have frequent sexual contacts at the day with the higher chances for conception or schedule intrauterine insemination.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
The IUI is scheduled on the day of ovulation. The semen is collected on the day of insemination, after ejaculation into a sterile container. The collection can be performed at our Unit or at home. The semen is then processed in the laboratory to isolate the normal and best moving spermatozoa. This processed sperm is transferred into the woman’s uterus with the use of a special catheter.
The choice of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is recommended when the characteristics of husband’s sperm are close to normal values and the fallopian tubes of the woman are open. IUI can be combined with ovarian stimulation.
In cases when the sperm of the husband is very weak or in cases of azoospermia, the couple can choose to use donor sperm. The samples of donor sperm are cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen and are tested for all the potentially transmitted diseases. The procedure of sample thawing and the isolation of the normal and best moving spermatozoa of the donor sperm are performed on the day of ovulation of the woman.